Advanced renewable energy sources. Part - I by S C Bhatia

By S C Bhatia

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Extra resources for Advanced renewable energy sources. Part - I

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If the leakage rate was 10 per cent, then the climate impact would be 6 per cent of that of the fossil fuel system. The current study suggests that a future hydrogen-based economy would not be free from climate disturbance, although this may be considerably less pronounced that caused by the current fossil fuel energy systems. Careful attention would have to be paid to reducing hydrogen leakage to a minimum if the potential climate benefits of a future global hydrogen economy are to be realised.

5. Reflected solar radiation, K↑, is that part of the incoming shortwave radiation which is reflected by the earth’s surface and diffused by the atmospheric layer between the ground and the point of observation. The albedo of the earth’s surface, A, is expressed as the ratio of the reflected solar radiation to the global solar radiation, K↑ A= . G 6. Upward longwave radiation, L↑, is the quantity of longwave radiation emitted upwards by the earth’s surface and the shallow layer of atmosphere below the level of the measuring instrument, and passing through unit area in the horizontal in unit time.

The latitude is an angle, and is usually measured in degrees (marked with °). The equator has a latitude of 0°, the North pole has a latitude of 90° north (written 90°N or +90°), and the South pole has a latitude of 90° south (written 90°S or –90°). Together, latitude and longitude can be used as a geographic coordinate system to specify any location on the globe. Curves of constant latitude on the earth (running east-west) are referred to as lines of latitude or parallels. Each line of latitude is actually a circle on the earth parallel to the equator, and for this reason lines of latitude are also known as circles of latitude.

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