Advances in Superconductivity by H. Fröhlich (auth.), B. Deaver, John Ruvalds (eds.)

By H. Fröhlich (auth.), B. Deaver, John Ruvalds (eds.)

The complex learn Institute on "Advances in Superconductivity" was once held on the Ettore Majorana Centre for clinical tradition in Erice, Sicily, in the course of July three to July 15, 1982. This Institute was once the 3rd process the foreign college of Low Tempera­ ture Physics, which used to be confirmed on the Centre in 1977 with the suggestions and thought of T. Regge and A. Zichichi. The 1982 direction used to be based on a subject which introduced jointly basic easy study and the latest promising technological functions. therefore, the individuals represented a large spectrum of commercial and executive laboratories, in addition to universities from numerous international locations. this system of themes and audio system used to be constructed with the recommendation of the Organizing Committee, composed of H. Frohlich, T. Regge, B. Stritzker, and L. Testardi. This Institute emphasised contemporary advancements within the technology and expertise of superconductivity. A historic standpoint was once supplied via H. Frohlich, whose lectures keep in mind the earliest discoveries and theoretical makes an attempt to appreciate superconductivity. paradoxically, his early recommendation of the electron-phonon coupling as a key to superconductivity was once met with preliminary frequent skepticism. Later, the improvement of box concept equipment for sturdy country physics difficulties, and the evolution of the BCS concept has resulted in a doubtless unanimous concensus in regards to the e1ectron­ phonon mechanism because the essential resource of superconductivity in identified fabrics. Experimental experiences of superconductivity exemplify the powerful interaction of technological know-how and know-how in lots of ways.

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In particular, it was demonstrated that the noise driving term did indeed have a spectral density (2hv/R)coth(hv/2kBT) (Fig. 11). These results indicate rather strongly that the quantum Langevin equation is a valid description of a resistively shunted junction in the free running mode I > 10' The measurements also demonstrate that the Josephson junction operated as a self-mixer is an ideal quantum-limited device at frequencies up to 500GHz. The formalism developed in Sec. III A could also be exten~=d fairly readily to calculate the effects of quantum noise in a Josephson mixer with an external local oscillator.

18. Here, Li is the inductance coupled to the SQUID, with mutual inductance Mi' Ci and Ri are the series capacitance and resistance, and Vi and Vo are the input and output voltages. The total impedance of the input circuit is w2M2 Z. "'" R. +jwL. 12) ~ ~ ~ jwC. Z s ~ where Zs is the SQUID impedance which consists of a resistive and inductive component in parallel (Koch, 1982). Since Mt = a2LLi, and a 2 is small, we shal neglect the term w2Mr/Zs for low signal frequencies, w. input circuit that generates a current -MijN/ Zi and hence a flux -MrJN/Zi in the SQUID.

However, the quantum Langevin equation may still be appropriate for overdamped junctions biased just below the critical current, and may give an accurate description of quantum noise rounding of the I - V characteristic. A clarification of the relationship between the quantum Langevin equation and MQT in this regime is very much needed. of The theory dc SQUIDs in the thermal limit (Sec. V B) predicts c/lHz ~ l6kBT(LC)~. A large variety of SQUIDs are in reasonable agreement with this formula, as shown in Fig.

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