Arabic Literature to the End of the Umayyad Period (The by A. F. L. Beeston, T. M. Johnstone, R. B. Serjeant, G. R.

By A. F. L. Beeston, T. M. Johnstone, R. B. Serjeant, G. R. Smith

Initially released in 1983, The Cambridge background of Arabic Literature used to be the 1st basic survey of the sector to were released in English for over fifty years and the 1st tried in such aspect in a multi-volume shape. The volumes of the historical past offer a useful resource of reference and realizing of the highbrow, literary and non secular historical past of the Arabic-speaking and Islamic global. This quantity starts off its assurance with the oral verse of the 6th century advert, and ends with the autumn of the Umayyad dynasty centuries later. inside this era fall significant occasions: the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad, the founding of the Islamic faith, the nice Arab Islamic conquests of territories outdoor the Arabian Peninsula, and their assembly, as overlords, with the Byzantine and Sasanian global. members to this quantity speak about an array of themes together with the impacts of Greeks, Persians and Syrians on early Arabic literature.

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1, "Arabic metrics". THE NATURE OF ARABIC VERSE 35 This bedouinism was idealistic and nostalgic. The nomads, according to Ibn Khaldiin,28 are nearer to goodness because of their simple life and because they are nearer to the state of primeval nature, which was considered the source of all good.

These styles are conventionally placed before both kunyah and ism. In this period there was also a large development of the nisbah. Beside the old tribal nisbahs, which by their nature were familial, one encounters nisbahs derived from the bearer's place of birth or residence (such as al-Qummi, "of Qumm"), or his religious rite (al-Maliki, "adherent of the Malikite rite"), or his profession. All of these types showed some tendency towards evolving into familial names transmitted from father to son without reference to the bearer's own status; and just as the old tribal nisbah al-Bakri interchanges with the form "son of Bakr", so these new-style nisbahs sometimes appear in the latter form, as in the case of Ibn al-Bawwab — literally "son of the janitor", though we cannot infer from this that a person so named had in fact a father exercising that profession (the case is the same as has occurred in the West with such familial names as Smithson).

In addition to Mu'allaqdt authors (p. 30 above), top rank among the Jahiliyyah poets was accorded to al-Muhalhil, the maternal uncle of Imru' al-Qays, to Abu Du'ad, Tufayl, Aws b. Hajar and many others. There were poets who were considered equal with thcfuhul but accorded second rank because they did not compose many qasjdahs, as in the case of Tarafah, who died young, but composed one of the most celebrated qasjdahs, the second Mu'allaqah. The poets of the oasis-towns were generally regarded as inferior, with the exception of those of Medina, foremost among whom were Qays b.

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