The area s most sensible and such a lot accomplished reference advisor to all points of warmth treating. Contents contain: warmth treating of metal quenching, tempering, and annealing, non-stop annealing, quantitative tips on how to expect hardenability. floor Hardening of metal processing and homes of case hardened fabrics. warmth Treating apparatus emphasis on furnace layout and thermal potency. procedure and quality controls concerns sensors and oxygen probes for temperature/atmosphere/carbon keep an eye on, statistical approach keep an eye on. warmth Treating of forged Irons comprises info on austempered ductile iron and high-alloy irons. warmth Treating Stainless Steels and warmth Resistant Alloys contains superalloys and refractory metals and alloys. Sections on warmth Treating of software Steels and Nonferrous Alloys.
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Extra info for ASM Handbook: volume 4: Heat Treating (Asm Handbook)
Diameter, but ferritic-pearlitic for larger diameters. Source: Ref 40 Case hardening (that is, carburizing and quenching) is a rather complicated process. During the carburizing stage at about 900 °C (1650 °F), carbon diffuses into the steel from the surrounding environment, most often as a gas mixture. The carburizing takes several hours, and usually the temperature is lowered 50 to 100 °C (90 to 180 °F) for about one hour before quenching to reduce the risk of distortion. It is reasonable to assume that the material is stress-free when the quenching takes place.
34(b). If the water spray is replaced by oil quenching, the calculation shows that the magnitude of the compressive stress peak is reduced while the hardening depth is the same because the depth of austenitization is the same. Fig. ) diameter. The solid curve is calculated using the ITh diagram in Fig. 4, and the two others are hypothetical displacements of this diagram to shorter and longer times, respectively. This can illustrate the effect of different prior microstructures or different steel compositions.
The degree of distortion depends on the magnitude of the residual stresses. Hardening procedures that minimize transient and residual stresses are beneficial as well as the use of fixtures (press hardening). Distortion can also occur during tempering or annealing due to release of residual stresses or phase transformations during tempering as described previously in this article. References cited in this section 31. Residual Stresses in Science and Technology, F. Macherauch and V. , DGM Informationsgesellschaft Verlag, Oberursel, 1986 32.