Beyond Information: The Natural History of Intelligence by Professor Tom Stonier BA, MSc, PhD, FRSA (auth.)

By Professor Tom Stonier BA, MSc, PhD, FRSA (auth.)

Preamble The emergence of computing device intelligence in the course of the moment 1/2 the 20 th century is an important improvement within the evolution of this planet because the starting place of lifestyles to 3 thousand million years in the past. The emergence of laptop intelligence in the matrix of human society is comparable to the emergence, 3 billion years in the past, of complicated, self-replicating molecules in the matrix of an energy-rich molecular soup - step one within the evolution of lifestyles. The emergence of laptop intelligence inside a human social context has set into movement irreversible tactics as a way to bring about an evolutionary discontinuity. simply because the emergence of "Life" represented a qualitatively assorted type of business enterprise of subject and effort, so will natural "Intelligence" characterize a qualitatively assorted kind of supplier of subject, power and existence. The emergence of laptop intelligence presages the development of the human species as we all know it, right into a shape which, at the moment, we might no longer know as "human". As Forsyth and Naylor (1985) have mentioned: "Humanity has opened Pandora's bins even as, one labelled genetic engineering, the opposite labelled wisdom engineering. What we have now let loose isn't really solely transparent, however it is cheap to endanger a bet that it comprises the seeds of our successors".

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Ridgeway (1986) estimates that the bottle-nosed dolphin Tursiops truncatus ranks somewhere between our nearest primate cousins (chimps and gorillas) and us. At least part of the problem in evaluating the intelligence of cetaceous mammals is that they took to the seas somewhere between 70 and 90 million years ago, while the advanced areas of the brains of land animals tended to evolve only around 50 million years ago. This would account for the fact that while whale brains, for example, have retained all the conservative characters seen in primitive land mammals, they differ markedly in the evolution of the more recent neo-cortex (Morgane et al.

That is, crystals, being highly organised entities which possess considerable information and engage in substantial information processing, lack true intelligence: Under usual circumstances, they fail to duplicate themselves. When they do reproduce, they are engaging in intelligent behaviour. However, once the reaction is completed, the crystals return to their wholly inanimate state, totally subjected to the vagaries of fate which their environment may impose on them. Nevertheless, if only briefly, crystals may exhibit "flashes of intelligent behaviour".

Resonances produce oscillations. These result in regular cycles - a range of phenomena observed from subatomic to human social systems. Regular cycles favour stability: Like a spinning gyroscope, it becomes much more difficult to displace or distort a cycling system than a static one. However, a resonating system also allows minor variations. Each recursive cycle permits the introduction of variations into the cycle. The more complex the system - the more numerous and complex are the cycles and subcycles - the easier it becomes to introduce variations.

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