Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering in Urology by J. Denstedt (Editor), A. Atala (Editor)

By J. Denstedt (Editor), A. Atala (Editor)

A useful source for clinicians in addition to for researchers in fabrics and biomedical units, this article summarizes contemporary learn at the use of biomaterials and tissue engineering within the remedy of urological problems. half one experiences the basics together with biofilms and encrustation formation. half then discusses fresh advances in biomaterials and the layout of urological units equivalent to steel ureteral stents, self-lubricating catheter fabrics, and penile implants. the ultimate part addresses urological tissue engineering, protecting synthetic and normal biomaterials, nanotechnology, and placental stem cells used for the regeneration of urological tissue and organs.

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Introduction to biofilms in urology 7 major bacterial determinants are surface factor expression and cell viability. , 1992). The possession and expression of these factors can vary widely between different types of bacteria, even down to the strain level. e. ). , 1999). In the case of a biomaterial, once this irreversible attachment has taken place and a biofilm begins to form, at present it is virtually impossible to eradicate. e. blood, urine), which not only provide nutrients for the microbes but also adhere to the biomaterial themselves and form what is called a ‘conditioning film’ (Fig.

Furthermore, these factors can be combined with other agents such as antimicrobials to either kill or inhibit the growth of organisms released from the biofilms before they can adhere again. 3 Novel antifouling coatings Following many uses in industrial applications, diamond-like coatings (DLCs) are being adapted for biomedical applications. These amorphous carbon coatings are known for their superior tribologic properties and their biocompatibility. Laube et al. (2007) developed a low-temperature, lowpressure, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique for coating polymeric medical implants with DLC.

A second component of the flow is driven purely by a pressure gradient developed between the renal pelves and the bladder. This second flow component can be problematic should pressures in the bladder exceed those at the renal pelves. Furthermore, computational analysis has demonstrated that the normal initiation of peristalsis can itself momentarily reverse the flow in segments of the ureter nearest its upstream entrance (Vahidi and Fatouraee, 2007). These potential reflux conditions can lead to a reverse flow of urine, along with potential bacteria and toxins, from the bladder to renal pelves and on to the kidneys (Bykova and Regirer, 2005).

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