Carotenoids in Photosynthesis by G. Britton (auth.), Dr. Andrew J. Young, Dr. George Britton

By G. Britton (auth.), Dr. Andrew J. Young, Dr. George Britton (eds.)

Significant advancements lately have ended in a deeper figuring out of the function and serve as of carotenoids in photosynthesis. For the 1st time the organic, biochemical, and chemical features of the position of those pigments in photosynthesis are introduced jointly in a single finished reference quantity. Chapters specialise in the photochemistry of carotenoids in mild harvesting and photoprotection, the character and distribution of carotenoids in photosynthetic organisms, their biosynthesis, the herbicidal inhibition of carotenogenesis and the `xanthophyll cycle'. all through info are given of many of the methodologies used. an in depth appendix presents actual info for the most important compounds. Carotenoids in Photosynthesis is a useful reference resource for all plant scientists.

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J. Young Carotenoid epoxides have rarely been reported for the red algae (Goodwin 1980) although some Rhodophycean algae do appear to be able to synthesise antheraxanthin and lutein-5,6-epoxide (= taraxanthin) (Bj0mland et al. 1984a; Czeczuga and Taylor 1987). Other species appear to lack a-carotene and its xanthophyll derivatives such as lutein (Guillard et al. 1985). 5 Cryptophyceae Of all the algal groups, the Cryptophyceae have received the greatest attention from the point of view of their carotenoids.

B,B-carotene-2,2'-diol, 26, and B,E-caroten-2-ol, 27) have been detected in the air alga Trentepohlia iolithus (Buchecker et al. 1974). These have R-chirality at C-2. HO OH 26 HO 27 Many members of the Chlorophyceae possess the ability to accumulate secondary carotenoids in response to stress conditions. Most notable of these is Dunaliella salina, which can accumulate B-carotene to levels approaching 14% of the cellular dry weight (Borowitzka 1988; Borowitzka and Borowitzka 1988). First isolated in esterified form from Fritschiella tuberosa, fritschiellaxanthin «3S,3'R,6'R)-3,3' -dihydroxy-B,E-caroten-4-one, 28), a 4-keto derivative oflutein, and 2,3-didehydrofritschiellaxanthin (29) have been detected in the cell walls of a number of algae (Burczyk 1987).

Euglena viridis and E. gracilis). """ "":: """ "":: "":: "":: "":: """ "":: "":: "":: "":: """ ~~ HO 41 """ ~)Q ~OH ~I 42 "":: "":: """ """ "":: "":: """ 43 44 Fiksdahl and Liaaen-Jensen (1988) have characterised the acety lenic carotenoids in E. viridis and reported the presence of 3,4,7,8,3',4',7',8'-octadehydro-B,Bcarotene (45) and an esterified form of7,8,3',4',7',8'-hexahydro-B,B-caroten-3-o1 (46). The Euglenophyceae also contain diesters of (3R, 3'R)-alloxanthin (47) with myristic and palmitic acids as the fatty acid moieties.

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