By Brian Holtsbaum
This e-book offers a close step by step technique for onshore cathodic defense exams together with rectifier inspections and troubleshooting, structure-to-electrolyte (pipe-to-soil) strength measurements, direct present dimension, diagnostic checking out (troubleshooting cathodic safety systems), adjustive surveys, commissioning of cathodic safeguard structures, shut period power surveys, DC stray present trying out, electric isolation checks, street casing isolation trying out, AC unsafe voltages on pipelines, and soil resistivity measurements. each one of those try out tactics have been ready as modules that may be used self sufficient of one another. The textual content could be specifically invaluable to cathodic security technicians in helping with their box assessments, to cathodic safety technologists or experts within the research of the exams facts and for people fascinated by the learning of cathodic safety group of workers.
desk of Contents
1. Rectifier Adjustment, Inspection, and easy Troubleshooting
2. Structure-to-Electrolyte capability size
three. Direct present Measurements
four. Diagnostic checking out (Current Requirement)
five. Adjustive Survey
6. Commissioning Survey
7. shut period strength Survey
eight. Direct present Stray present Interference
nine. electric Isolation
10. highway and Railroad Cased Crossings (Basic)
eleven. Alternating present Voltage trying out
12. Soil Resistivity dimension
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Additional resources for Cathodic Protection Survey Procedures
2 Test the rectifying elements for a shorted diode and replace, as required. 3 Inspect for signs of arcing to the rectifier case. Determine cause and repair, as necessary. 1 If the rectifying element consists of selenium, the failure will generally be in the form of reduced efficiency, with signs of arc burns on the plates. A catastrophic failure will result in burned and warped plates that are loose in the stack. 2 A silicon diode will either operate or fail in either an open circuit or shorted condition.
3 Digital voltmeters display the units and polarity, and those with an autoranging feature will automatically change the scale, based on the value. When the measurement value exceeds a scale, the instrument will automatically change the scale and possibly the units, which may go unnoticed; for example, it may switch from a millivolt scale to a volt scale. It is, therefore, critical that the units and polarity in addition to the value be noted each time. 4 The hold feature allows the operator to capture a reading so that it can be recorded afterward.
Chloride contamination See Appendix A: Reference Electrode Maintenance. 5 Copper sulfate reference electrode components are shown. through the porous plug of the CSE can occur if used in high-chloride environments. 3 Other electrodes may be used, such as a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) and a hydrogen electrode; however, these are normally used in laboratory conditions. 4 A potential taken to one type of reference electrode will be different from that taken to another. A conversion from one electrode can be made when the relative potential differences between the two reference electrodes are known.