# Chemistry: The Core Concepts by Glenn V. Lo, Michael A. Janusa

By Glenn V. Lo, Michael A. Janusa

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Some of these ­quantities are defined as ratios of two quantities that have the same unit. When we ­calculate the ­ratio, the units cancel out. For example, specific gravity is a unitless quantity. It is defined as the ratio of the density of an object to the density of a reference material (such as water). Another example is transmittance. It is defined as the ratio of the intensity of light that passes through a solution to the intensity of light that that passes through a reference solution.

K= Example ▼ Which has more kinetic energy? A. 00 m s−1 B. 00 m s−1 Answer: Same. A and B have the same mass but different velocities. But kinetic energy depends on the square of the magnitude of velocity, not the velocity itself. In other words, it depends only on speed, not direction. Kinetic energy is a scalar, not a vector. 00 m/s), even if they are moving in opposite directions. 00 × 102 m s−1? 9 Work and the Work-Energy Theorem Work is defined as the application of a force over a distance.

9 pm. Compare the gravitational and Coulombic forces at this distance. 67 × 10−27 kg, 1 pm = 10−12 m. Answer: Plugging in the masses, charges and distance in the appropriate formulas, we find that the magnitude of the Coulombic force is about 1039 times larger. 25 × 10 N −8 N All forces in nature can be classified into four fundamental types: electromagnetic, strong, weak, and gravitational. Strong and weak forces are significant only between particles at very, very, very short distances from each other (such as protons and ­neutrons in Chapter 4: Basic Physics Concepts 53 ▼ a ­nucleus).

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