China-Russia Relations in Central Asia: Energy Policy, by Thomas Stephan Eder

By Thomas Stephan Eder

​As China rises to international strength prestige, its family members with different significant powers, together with Russia, are consistently renegotiated. power figures prominently in either international locations’ overseas coverage. an intensive research of chinese resources – educational debate 1997-2012 – confirms a collision of pursuits over principal Asian reserves. whereas unanimous appeals to compromise render prior predictions of imminent disagreement unconvincing, descriptions of Sino-Central Asian power family as “central to strength security”, and the specific rejection of a Russian “sphere of influence”, additionally exclude a retreat. within the long-term, China will most probably change Russia because the dominant strength in important Asia’s power region, inflicting the Kremlin to understand one other “encroachment”. the present thought of a “strategic partnership” will unavoidably be challenged.​

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Extra info for China-Russia Relations in Central Asia: Energy Policy, Beijing’s New Assertiveness and 21st Century Geopolitics

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Regarding Sino-Russian projects, several feasibility studies were conducted on a gas pipeline from the Kovykta field in the late 1990s, but lead to nothing. Large costs and a lack of infrastructure still deterred China, which instead opted to import “Liquified Natural Gas“ (in the following: LNG) from Australia and Indonesia. In 1999, as a reaction to the proposed “KazakhstanChina Oil Pipeline”, the Russian company “Yukos“ started negotiating with CNPC about oil deliveries and a possible oil pipeline from the Siberian city Angarsk to Daqing in Manchuria (Lo 2008:144; Marciacq 2009:130; Wilson 2004:86).

In 2005, there were 400 Russian JVs in Uzbekistan and 267 Uzbek JVs in Russia (Fumagalli 2007:261-262). Regarding Turkmenistan, an agreement had been reached in 2003, stating that Turkmen gas worth USD 300 million would be delivered to Russia over the following five years (Buszynski 2005:563). Involving all three CA gas exporters, Gazprom concluded a deal with KazMunayGas to increase gas transit through the CAC pipeline from Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan through Kazakhstan to Russia in late 2005 (Blank reinforces its drive for empire, while both these goals are attainable only at the cost of perpetuating Central Asia’s socio-economic backwardness, which most observers believe will sooner or later trigger a massive explosion of civil disorder there“ (Blank 2007:124-125).

As a result, the CA republics’ energy resources were underdeveloped and their transportation network tied them to Moscow when the SU was dissolved (Saurbek 2008: 83). Said resources are considerable and diverse, with the primary products being oil for Kazakhstan, gas for Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan and hydro power for Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Uzbekistan also has relevant oil reserves, and Kazakhstan also commands considerable reserves of gas (Bosbotinis 2010:7172; Pomfret 2010:1). All five states have sizeable uranium reserves, especially 22 See Stulberg 2007:2 for a general definition of energy security.

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