Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham

By Stephen Graham

A strong exposé of ways political violence operates throughout the areas of city life.
Cities are the recent battleground of our more and more city global. From the slums of the worldwide South to the rich monetary facilities of the West, Cities below Siege lines the unfold of political violence in the course of the websites, areas, infrastructure and logos of the world’s quickly increasing metropolitan components.

Drawing on a wealth of unique learn, Stephen Graham exhibits how Western militaries and protection forces now understand all city terrain as a clash area inhabited through lurking shadow enemies. city population became objectives that must be constantly tracked, scanned and regulated. Graham examines the transformation of Western armies into high-tech city counter-insurgency forces. He appears on the militarization and surveillance of foreign borders, using ‘security’ matters to suppress democratic dissent, and the enacting of laws to droop civilian legislations. In doing so, he finds how the hot army Urbanism permeates the full cloth of city lifestyles, from subway and shipping networks hardwired with high-tech ‘command and control’ structures to the insidious militarization of a well-liked tradition corrupted through the all-pervasive discourse of ‘terrorism.’

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Extra resources for Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism

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1 Security Attacks and Requirements 37 tion, which is based on the user’s identity and the related policy. It is achieved by two stages, firstly, a user trying to gain access to the resource is identified (authenticated), and then the corresponding access rights are authorized, thus preventing unauthorized use of data and other resources. Confidentiality: Due to broadcast nature of radio channels, all devices within the communication range of the sender can receive the transmission. Thus, the wireless network is particularly vulnerable to eavesdropping, as mentioned previously.

For the convenience of users, the initial access codes and passwords will be set “active”. Thus every one contacting with them can use them and then carry out unauthorized applications and data accesses. The flaws of WAP. WAP does not provide end-to-end security or provide data protection at the WAP gateway, thus leading to the exposure of confidential information and then causing security threats. Potential gateway threats. A device configured with WLAN, GSM/GPRS interfaces may let the approached illegal users establish connection to WLAN via the WLAN devices for its connectivity.

However, there exist some security vulnerabilities in its encryption and authentication mechanisms. 11 [10]. 11i employs the TKIP encryption algorithm and CCMP protocol based on the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). 11a/b/g hardware. 11 and defined WAPI [11, 12], thus greatly decreased the potential safety hazard of WLAN. 11s TF, and NEMO TF in IETF. 2 Key Issues of WLAN Security 21 and wireless links. 11X, Bluetooth, WiMAX, and 3G. 2) Authenticated Key Exchange The goal of an authentication protocol is to ensure that communication parties know each other’s true identities.

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