Developments in Energy and Water saving Additives by Pira International Ltd

By Pira International Ltd

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For detergents, these are products made with ingredients from the Detergent Ingredient Database (DID). The DID lists ingredients with their toxicity and biodegradability. The scheme is voluntary; manufacturers do not have to use it; but it has obvious marketing advantages. Page 32 © Copyright Pira International Ltd 2008 Developments in Energy- and Water-saving Additives Environmental, sustainability and regulatory issues 3 The EU-Flower Labelling Scheme is a more demanding voluntary market-based scheme involving 25 classes of products and over 650 individual suppliers, 22 of whom are involved with laundry detergents.

PAP (phthalimidoperoxycaproic) acid is the most common. Activators Activators are needed to get good bleaching with the peroxides at low temperatures (<60°C). They are mainly acetylating agents that at pH 9–12 react with hydrogen peroxide to form organic peroxy acids. In Europe the preferred activator is tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED) and in the US it is nonanoyloxybenzene sulfonate (NOBS). The chemistry of bleach activation is described in more detail in Chapter 6. NOBS contains a C6–C10 hydrophobe, which makes it more hydrophobic and good at solubilising greases.

They use Page 43 © Copyright Pira International Ltd 2008 Developments in Energy- and Water-saving Additives Market pressures basic top load machines with agitators in the base of the tub, so agitation of the laundry is likely to be poor. Kao and Lion are the main local detergent brands. The main market driver is washing convenience, and fragranced detergents are proving popular. Page 44 © Copyright Pira International Ltd 2008 Reducing water usage: washing machine technology 5 Washing machines provide the mechanical mixing that blends and dissolves powdered detergent in the wash water.

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