By Clinton L. Beckford, Donovan R. Campbell (auth.)
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Extra resources for Domestic Food Production and Food Security in the Caribbean: Building Capacity and Strengthening Local Food Production Systems
Industrialization was pursued at the expense of domestic agriculture; intersectoral linkages did not materialize as Lewis had envisaged and local economies were marked by weak markets and dependence on foreign investments, foreign markets, and foreign food (Demas, 1975; Axline, 1984). Best (1976) wrote that the industrialization by invitation experiment did not work in the Caribbean. Criticisms of the model were largely based on the fact that it purportedly led to regional dependence on external forces when the regional agenda should have been focused on increasing economic and political independence (Best 1976; Girvan and Jefferson, 1971; Beckford, 1972).
Most small-scale farmers lack the resources to afford irrigation schemes. Smallholder farming is therefore highly susceptible to the vagaries of weather and climate, and the onset of drought have had severe impact on the domestic food production sector. Some small-scale farmers have put in homemade irrigation systems including drip irrigation (Campbell, 2011). In Jamaica some farmers have set up sprinkler systems connected to domestic water supply (Campbell, 2011) and utilize canals belonging to sugar plantations.
The domestic sector suffers from difﬁculties in obtaining ﬁnancial credit, lack of research, poor marketing and distribution infrastructure, and lack of extension services. 2 Modes of Production The small-scale farming sector in the Caribbean has always been largely responsible for most of the production of domestic food, which forms the foundation of nutrition and daily diets and is thus fundamental to food security and economic development. It is also responsible for a signiﬁcant percentage of export crop production across the Caribbean.