By Professor Dr. Heinrich Walter, Professor Dr. Siegmar-W. Breckle (auth.)
By the tip of the final century, the one quarter in all of Europe the place the common crops remained untouched over huge expanses was once jap Europe. info at the plants of this area although, remained usually unavailable to western scientists even supposing the ecological method of botanical examine originated in jap Europe. Heinrich Walter used to be born in Russia, studied usual Sciences - with emphasis on botany - in Odessa and understands all suitable Russian literature on ecology. This quantity hence bargains scientists around the globe a distinct and complete survey of all appropriate examine, together with the more often than not unknown literature released in Russian.
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Extra info for Ecological Systems of the Geobiosphere: 3 Temperate and Polar Zonobiomes of Northern Eurasia
The true hibernators, such as the hegdehog and both the common and garden dormice, reduce their body temperature and heart frequency and fall into a deep sleep, sometimes for months at a time. Through a metabolic adjustment, fat from reserves previously deposited is used instead of glucose, so that normal functions can be maintained without the animal having to feed. Bats hibernate too, not in nests, but hanging from the roofs of caves. During hibernation total metabolism is reduced to 1110 of its normal value.
Once coal had replaced wood as fuel, beech, too, lost its economic importance and felled areas were frequently reforested with spruce. This was the start of the replacement of the forests of central Europe by spruce plantations. Yields from spruce stands are high because the cultivation cycle takes only 80 years and the quantity of timber produced in cubic metres per hectare is greater than from deciduous trees or pines. The choice of spruce was from the beginning a risk. This species is indigenous to the Boreal zonobiome VIII and the high montane altitude belt in central Europe.
The remnants of the forests, mostly on deep soils, cover only a small percentage of the original area. More extensive areas of forest have been retained as alder marsh woods in the Pripet basin (Fig. 38, signatory 1) , and as hardwood forests in the large Byalowyeshskaya Pushcha nature reserve on the Polish-Soviet border, and also around Pensa to the west of Tula, on the right bank of the Volga, both near Kuybyshev and further south, as well as in the southern Urals. There are in addition many smaller areas of forest which retain the original composition of tree species, making it possible to trace the changes in floral composition with changes in climate from west to east and from north to south.