Electrons, Neutrons and Protons in Engineering. A Study of by J. R. Eaton (Auth.)

By J. R. Eaton (Auth.)

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Additional info for Electrons, Neutrons and Protons in Engineering. A Study of Engineering Materials and Processes Whose Characteristics May Be Explained by Considering the Behavior of Small Particles When Grouped Into Systems Such as Nuclei, Atoms, Gases, and Crystals

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Protons and neutrons are found combined in quite restricted fashion, as is indicated by the Chart of the Nuclides, Appendix Table II. In this chart the number of proton Z is plotted as ordinates, and the number of neutrons A-Z is plotted as abscissas. The assemblies of protons and neutrons which form stable combinations are indicated by grey squares. The 52 ELECTRONS, NEUTRONS AND PROTONS IN ENGINEERING artificially formed combinations which are radioactive are indicated by white squares, and the radioactive combinations which appear in nature are indicated by black squares.

The nucleus forms the center and accounts for the principal part of the mass of the atom which is itself a sort of miniature solar system with electrons moving around the nucleus. The nucleus of an atom of a particular element is characterized by its number of protons and neutrons. The nucleus is a very active system with the component neutrons and protons in constant motion with respect to each other, the movement of the individual particles being influenced by forces of repulsion and forces of attraction.

From the Coulomb force. The net force/net on the incoming proton is repulsive at wide separation, becomes attractive, and again repulsive at small separations. As indicated on the diagram, at spacing a the two opposing forces are equal and opposite in value. A free proton with zero velocity at the left of a will move outward, while one at the right of a will move inward. If the incoming proton is shot at the nucleus with sufficient energy to take it only to point x, the proton will reverse its direction and move away from the nucleus.

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