By George C. Kohn
Read or Download Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence, 3rd Edition (Facts on File Library of World History) PDF
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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence, 3rd Edition (Facts on File Library of World History)
By the time they arrived and confirmed the outbreak as being one of Asiatic cholera, the epidemic was beginning to subside. However, cholera’s entry into Russian territory prompted the creation of a special cholera council at St. Petersburg. The council established a sound medical and administrative framework, enabling it to deal with future cholera epidemics. Their recommendations were implemented when the next cholera epidemic struck in 1829–30 (see PERSIAN CHOLERA EPIDEMIC OF 1829–30). Further reading: McGrew, Russia and the Cholera, 1823–32.
In May 1849, cholera began spreading rapidly from foci in New York City and New Orleans until most of the United States east of the Rockies was affected. Canada, already struck by sea from Europe, was also attacked by cholera overland from the United States. Mexico was similarly attacked, and a ship carried the disease from New Orleans to Panama late in 1849. In 1850, there was a severe cholera attack in Egypt and along coastal North Africa. Most of Europe, including areas affected in 1849, was once again infected.
As usual, typhus fever spread from the hospitals to the civilian population, killing thousands of people in Königsberg (Kaliningrad), Marienburg, Bromberg, and other places in East Prussia and along the Vistula River. See also DANZIG TYPHUS EPIDEMIC OF 1807. Further reading: Prinzing, Epidemics Resulting from Wars; Quennevat, Les vrais soldats de Napoleón. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) Outbreaks (c. 1997– ) Outbreaks of avian influenza virus on three continents, caused by the highly virulent H5N1 strain, that experts fear might contain the seeds of a major pandemic once it reaches the human-to-human transmission stage.