Essentials of Medical Microbiology by Rajesh Bhatia;R. L. Ichhpujani

By Rajesh Bhatia;R. L. Ichhpujani

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An autotroph is a microorganism that depends on no more than CO2 for its carbon needs. A photoautotroph is an autotroph whose energy needs are met by light. A chemoautotroph is an autotroph whose energy needs are met from inorganic substances. g. sugar, amino acids for growth. A saprobe satisfies its nutritional needs by feeding upon the dead. Bacteria also require a source of nitrogen and a number of salts to have a supply of potassium, magnesium, iron, phosphate and sulphate. Minor concentrations of calcium and manganese are also required whereas growth is facilitated when trace quantities of cobalt, zinc, chlorine, copper, nickel, etc.

Monocytogenes E. rhusiopathiae C. diphtheriae N. meningitidis P. aeruginosa S. moniliformis B. abortus B. pertussis B. fragilis F. nucleatum Esch. coli S. typhi Sh. flexneri K. pneumoniae Y. pestis C. fetus H. influenzae V. cholerae T. pallidum B. recurrentis L. icterohaemor rhagiae M. pneumoniae R. prowazekii C. burnetti C. trachomatis Thus, the factors influencing the resolution power of the microscope are wavelength of light and numerical aperture of the objective lens. 2 μm. The factor that most limits the clarity of a microscope image is its resolving power.

It is much faster than sporulation and under ideal conditions may take less than two hours. It has three stages: Activation, germination proper and outgrowth. Fig. 3–12. The L forms are the variants of bacteria which can replicate as pleomorphic, filterable elements with defective or absent cell walls. These can develop in synthetic media in the presence of agents such as penicillin or with hypertonic osmolarity. 16 Essentials of Medical Microbiology Activation Some spores activate spontaneously but some require the effect of an activator such as heat, low pH or an SH compound.

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