Read or Download Europe From A to Z Guide to European integration PDF
Similar europe books
This quantity seeks to get in the back of the skin of political occasions and to spot the forces which formed politics and tradition from 1680 to 1840 in Germany, France and nice Britain. The participants, all best experts within the box, discover seriously how 'culture', outlined within the widest experience, used to be exploited in the course of the 'long eighteenth century' to buttress authority in all its types and the way politics infused tradition.
This ebook deals an in-depth exam of the strategic use of kingdom sovereignty in modern ecu and foreign affairs and the implications of this for authority kin in Europe and past. It indicates a brand new method of the research of country sovereignty, offering to appreciate using sovereignty as video games the place States have gotten extra instrumental of their claims to sovereignty and expert in adapting it to the demanding situations that they face.
The subject ofthe convention at which the papers during this publication have been offered was'Systems pondering in Europe'. contributors of the uk structures Society (UKSS) have been awake that the structures movementflourishes notonly within the united kingdom, the United States and the Antipodes, but additionally in continental Europe, either East and West, and within the USSR, a country more and more being welcomed by means of the ecu comity.
- With the Dublin Brigade: Espionage and Assassination with Michael Collins' Intelligence Unit
- European Warfare, 1660-1815 (Warfare and History)
- From Yugoslavia to the Western Balkans: Studies of a European Disunion, 1991-2011 (Balkan Studies Library)
- Land and Labor in Europe in the Twentieth Century: A Comparative Survey of Recent Agrarian History (Studies in Social Life)
Extra info for Europe From A to Z Guide to European integration
Thus the Single Act enshrined the concrete legal basis for consumer protection in Europe. In the Union Treaty this provision is supplemented by ‘specific action’ to protect the health, safety and economic interests of consumers and to provide adequate information to consumers. Implementation of consumer protection Like the growth of the internal market, implementation of consumer protection is a gradual process. By harmonizing standards the ® European Commission sought to secure a standard level of protection at Community level while simultaneously removing barriers to trade.
Consumer representation at Community and national level. Further consumer policy programmes were adopted for 1981-86, 1990-93 and 1993-95. Basically, they followed up the criteria and objectives of the first action plan. But despite continuous adaptation, consumer protection in Europe was initially slow to get off the ground. All too often the ambitious plans clashed with powerful economic interests. Consumer protection got a new impetus with the adoption of the Single European Act in 1987: the new Article 100a (3) of the EC Treaty stipulated that in developing the single market in the domains of health, safety, environmental protection and consumer protection, a ‘high level of protection’ had to be taken as a base.
Executive powers were also predominantly held by the Council. Although there has been no fundamental change to the position of the Council within the institutional system, it has in the meantime been required to delegate its executive powers to the Commission and to share its decision-making powers with the European Parliament in connection with the ® budget and association policies, and also in the matter of accession treaties. The introduction by the SEA of the ‘cooperation procedure’ (Article 189c) by the Single European Act, and of the ‘codecision procedure’ (Article 189 b) by the Treaty on European Union, has involved a gradual and significant increase in the influence exerted by the European The continued dominant position of the Council within the institutional system is limited in particular by the fact that, with some minor exceptions, it can act in fields of common EU policy only on the basis of a proposal submitted by the Commission.