Farmcarts to Fords: a history of the military ambulance, by John S. Haller

By John S. Haller

This booklet is the 1st heritage of the concepts, structures, and applied sciences used to evacuate wounded from the battlefield. traditionally, the observe ambulance defined these amenities that supplied transitority counsel to the wounded, hence distinguishing them from desk bound hospitals the place army team of workers got extra everlasting care. american citizens and British, although, utilized the time period to the two-to four-wheeled delivery conveyances that carried wounded from the battlefield to the struggle hospitals. due to fifty-four illustrations, John S. Haller lines the histories of either meanings of the be aware from the Napoleonic period in the course of the nice battle and its aftermath. He concentrates at the improvement of British and American evacuation methods and expertise with a spotlight to be had conveyances and wheeled autos. His purpose isn't really to hide all features of scientific evacuation yet to correctly recount the typical clinical evacuation difficulties, incongruities, and controversies that existed for warring international locations.

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At the Medical Society for the State of New York and editor of the New York State Journal of Medicine; and to Glen W. Davidson, chair of the Department of Medical Humanities at the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine in Springfield, for their timely counsel, suggestions, and assistance. Also important are those reviewers whose evaluationsboth supportive and criticalcaused me to adjust my sights, correct mistakes, clarify concepts, and explore new areas and connections. For their comments I am deeply appreciative.

During the course of the century's wars, armies established stationary as well as field hospitals and dressing stations at the rear of fighting columns and even designated detachments responsible for evacuation of the wounded. Following the battle of Liegnitz during the Seven Years' War, Frederick the Great ordered five hundred dragoons to dismount and give saddle transportation to the wounded. On the field of Kunersdorf (1759), he ordered the bandaging of wounded during the battle. 13 Page 12 Prussian Tactics Both the desire and the ability to evacuate wounded during battle is determined in large measure by the nature of the terrain, the condition of roads, the nature of the battle, the kinds of weapons used, the state of technology, and the state of the art of medicine.

Of that number, three surgeons and twenty-one assistant surgeons resigned to join the Confederacy. The army dismissed an additional three assistant surgeons for disloyalty. And, typical of regional loyalty, surgeons attached to volunteer units often refused to accept wounded who were not of their own outfit or state. Page 24 Within twenty-eight months of the beginning of the war, twelve hundred volunteer surgeons were working with the armies in the field. By November 1862, the North had 150 general hospitals attending 60,500 sick and wounded.

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