Finland’s Search for Security through Defence, 1944–89 by Risto E.J. Penttila

By Risto E.J. Penttila

Based at the author's doctoral dissertation at Oxford, this research examines with a ancient viewpoint the nationwide defence technique of Finland 1944-1989. the writer explores Finland's difficulty with appreciate to its geographic place and the chilly warfare politics among the U.S. and the USSR.

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In his letter of 22 February 1944 Stalin proposed that Finland and the Soviet Union begin negotiating a treaty of friendship that would be based on the treaties the USSR had with Rumania and Hungary in the beginning of 1948. Since Finland had signed a peace treaty there were no formal obstacles to the signing of a friendship treaty. Nevertheless, the enthusiasm of 1944-45 over this type of treaty had disappeared. 15 President Paasikivi confessed privately that he saw the note as being aimed at the inclusion of Finland in the Soviet Union's military sphere of influence as welI as at the institution of a communist government in Finland.

His imprisonment lasted almost three years without formal charges being levelled against him and without his ever being convicted. Heinrichs' successor, General Jarl Lundqvist, who attempted to win the confidence of the Control Commission by adopting its attitudes, completely turned against those charged in the case. Even today his name is rarely mentioned in Finnish military historiography. 58 At the same time it was revealed that Minister of the Interior, Leino, had ceded immigrants with Finnish citizenship to the Soviet Union.

1948-49 33 In other words, Paasikivi pretended that the signing of the treaty had no function other than to record the existing arrangement between Finland and the Soviet Union. This interpretation was shared by Prime Minister Pekkala who emphasized that the treaty did not cause changes in Finland's international relations. 31 Paasikivi's interpretation of the consultation clause (Article 2) was also remarkably liberal. Totally disregarding the text of the treaty Paasikivi claimed that, in order for the consultations to begin, the threat of an armed attack must be mutually established: there should be an 'expression of mutual will'.

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