By John J. Videler (auth.)
Among the fishes, a remarkably wide variety of organic variations to assorted habitats has developed. in addition to dwelling within the traditional habitats of lakes, ponds, rivers, rock swimming pools and the open sea, fish have solved the issues of lifestyles in deserts, within the deep sea, within the chilly antarctic, and in hot waters of excessive alkalinity or of low oxygen. in addition to those diversifications, we discover the main extraordinary specializations of morphology, body structure and behavior. for instance we will be able to surprise on the high-speed swimming of the marlins, sailfish and warm-blooded tunas, air-breathing in catfish and lung fish, parental care within the mouth-brooding cichlids and viviparity in lots of sharks and toothcarps. additionally, fish are of substantial value to the survival of the human species within the kind of nutritious, scrumptious and various foodstuff. Rational exploitation and administration of our international shares of fishes needs to depend on an in depth and specified perception in their biology. The Chapman & corridor Fish and Fisheries sequence goals to give well timed volumes reviewing very important elements of fish biology. such a lot volumes may be of curiosity to analyze employees in biology, zoology, ecology and body structure yet an extra objective is for the books to be available to a large spectrum of non-specialist readers starting from undergraduates and postgraduates to these with an intrerest in commercial and advertisement points of fish and fisheries.
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Extra resources for Fish Swimming
1 INTRODUCTION Functional anatomists assume, as a working hypothesis, that organisms are adequately designed to perform the functions needed to live and reproduce. For many fish species, the survival value of the locomotion apparatus is so high that we may take for granted that it represents an efficient swimming device. We will study the anatomy of the relevant parts of the swimming machinery with this idea in mind. Efficient swimming requires that: 1. most of the energy expended by the swimming muscles be turned into appropriate motions of the propulsive surfaces; 2.
The strength of the momentum in this jet is equal, and its direction opposite. to the momentum of the fish. A vertical section through the fin of Fig. 4(b) shows the pressure Fig. 5 (a) A two-dimensional view of the wake behind a swimming fish. The bound vortices, released at the end of every stroke to the left or to the right. are shown. The arrows indicate the direction of rotation, and their length the relative velocity of the vortices. Note that the vortices remain stationary and that their size gradually increases.
The structure of fin rays is a unique feature of fish, revealing an extreme adaptation to the interaction with water. 2 THE MEDIAN SEPTUM AND VERTEBRAL COLUMN The number of vertebrae in the vertebral column is within certain limits characteristic for a given species or at least genus. For example cod have about 53, European eel, Anguilla anguilla, 114 and mackerel 31 vertebrae. The number may, however, vary considerably within a species: herring, for example, has between 54 and 58 vertebrae (Harder, 1975a, b).