By Lencioni Riccardo
Few fields of medication have witnessed such awesome growth because the analysis and therapy of liver tumors. Advances in imaging know-how, the improvement of novel distinction brokers, and the advent of optimized scanning protocols have drastically facilitated the non-invasive detection and characterization of focal liver lesions. moreover, image-guided concepts for percutaneous tumor ablation became an permitted substitute therapy for sufferers with inoperable liver melanoma. This booklet presents a finished and up to date review of the function of diagnostic and interventional radiology in appreciate of liver tumors. the amount strikes from heritage sections on method and segmental liver anatomy to the most sections at the analysis of benign and malignant liver lesions. An built-in strategy, thinking about the correlation of ultrasound, CT, and MR imaging findings, is gifted. ultimately, an entire part describes the foundations, tools, and result of percutaneous tumor ablation techniques.
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Additional info for Focal Liver Lesions Medical Radiology
The main factor in relation to arterial enhancement is iodine ﬂux (mg of iodine entering the cir- Computed Tomography culation per second), which depends on ﬂow rate (ml/s) and concentration of contrast medium (mg of iodine/ml). Faster injection rates increase maximum enhancement of the aorta and arterial enhancement of liver. 5 ml/s (Kim et al. 1998). High infusion rates are often limited by intravenous access and an effective alternative is a higher-concentration contrast medium (370 and 400 mg of iodine/ml); it is also advantageous in patients in whom there is a reduced signal/noise ratio on CT (heavy individuals and those requiring thin slices or reduced radiation dose).
1999). Even with regard to the use of an unenhanced phase opinions are controversial with papers demonstrating no additionally detected lesions (hepatomas or metastases) compared with other phases and other experiences showing a 3% increase in the detection rate for hepatocellular carcinomas compared with arterial and portal venous phases (Miller et al. 1998; Oliver et al. 1996). A. Laghi et al. 24 a b c d Fig. 8a–d. Typical haemangioma. a In the basal scan it appears as slightly hypodense area.
1 Technical Issues Motion artifacts have been traditionally considered as an important limitation in performing liver MR. Two strategies have been pursued to obtain high quality MR images: (1) suppression of the movement artifacts; (2) reduction of the acquisition time. 34 To avoid motion artifacts, respiratory triggered imaging was introduced. Images are acquired in a ﬁxed point of the expiratory breathing phase; the limitation of this kind of sequence is its inefﬁcacy in patients with irregular breathing and its long acquisition time, which is related also to the respiratory frequency of the patient (Fig.