Freedom and Morality and other Essays by A. J. Ayer

By A. J. Ayer

This can be a consultant selection of the paintings of A.J. Ayer, probably the most influential modern philosophers. It contains his Whidden lectures on freedom and morality, that have been offered at McMaster collage in 1983, a formerly unpublished essay on J.L. Mackie's conception of Causal precedence, and 7 different essays which hide such issues as: references and id, the causal concept of belief, the prisoner's paradox, self-evidence and simple task, and the background of the Vienna Circle.

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In the first place, Heidegger conceives both the possibility of philosophizing and the ‘essence’ of Dasein to be phenomena that do not exist unconditionally. The true Being of these phenomena lies in their being possessed by Dasein. Possession requires an act of ‘seizure’ (ergreifen), an ‘appropriation’, which enables these phenomena to become what they ‘are’. Both an ‘essence’ and the possibility of philosophizing are said to belong to Dasein. But the manner of ‘belonging’ is here is open to modification.

As we have argued above, and will emphasize throughout this study, selfreflection on the meaning and possibility of philosophic questioning belongs intrinsically to the essential task of philosophy. Heidegger’s reflection on philosophy’s ‘own doings’ and the clarification of the ‘essential starting point’ do not, to be sure, lead into an attempt to understand the ‘nature of political things’ in the classical sense. It does however intend to disclose, on different 22 Heidegger’s Philosophic Pedagogy levels, the essential conditions of philosophizing insofar as they pertain to the Being of the questioner.

Philosophy ought to become free in us and within this situation [Lage]. But in which situation? , our choosing, willing, doing and letting. (G27 5–6) By this point, the primary way in which Heidegger’s ‘introduction’ distinguishes itself from the conventional academic task of assisting others to become familiar with a distinct subject matter has become clear: the task is that of enacting philosophizing as a possibility, a way of existence, a historical occurrence (Geschehen) ‘in our Dasein now and here’.

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