De Hegel a Nietzsche by Karl Löwith

By Karl Löwith

Escrita durante el exilio en Japon y publicada en 1939 De Hegel a Nietzsche ha sido considerada un clasico y juzgada con razon como l. a. obra mas importante sobre l. a. filosofia y l. a. historia intelectual del siglo XIX. En ella Karl Lowith comienza con un examen de las relaciones entre Hegel y Goethe para a continuacion discutir de que manera los discipulos de Hegel -y particularmente Marx y Kierkegaard- interpretaron o reinterpretaron el pensamiento del maestro. Al senalar a Marx y a Kierkegaard como los precursores del decisionismo -con el cual los angeles filosofia legitimaba sus incursiones en el mundo historico- Lowith se propone l. a. tarea de desacreditar al historicismo en tanto responsable del nihilismo filosofico y del decisionismo politico. Y al orientar su pensamiento hacia l. a. despotenciacion de l. a. conciencia historica rehabilita teoricamente l. a. size reprimida por el pensamiento historicista: los angeles naturaleza. De Hegel a Nietzsche tiene entonces los angeles peculiaridad de ser un estudio historico pensado como una respuesta a los angeles identificacion de mundo e historia; un intento de contrarrestar los efectos de l. a. conciencia historica utilizando sus propias armas. Lowith asume ese proyecto paradojico desde los angeles certeza de que una vez eliminado el presupuesto de los angeles divinidad del cosmos ya no es posible un retorno a l. a. actitud contemplativa.

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De Hegel a Nietzsche

Escrita durante el exilio en Japon y publicada en 1939 De Hegel a Nietzsche ha sido considerada un clasico y juzgada con razon como l. a. obra mas importante sobre l. a. filosofia y los angeles historia intelectual del siglo XIX. En ella Karl Lowith comienza con un examen de las relaciones entre Hegel y Goethe para a continuacion discutir de que manera los discipulos de Hegel -y particularmente Marx y Kierkegaard- interpretaron o reinterpretaron el pensamiento del maestro.

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Exactly how is the claim that God exists like the existence of a square-circle? (Hartshorne 1965, 200–201). Leibniz’s principle of sufficient reason, which amounts to a sort of ultrarationalism, is not a required part of the ontological argument. This is because there is no sufficient reason for how God exists (divine actuality), only a convincing argument that God necessarily is (divine existence). Only the bare essence and existence of God, taken as an a priori abstraction, is established as a result of the ontological argument, not the more concrete actuality that specifies how God exists from moment to moment.

Historical Background 19 also see Summa Contra Gentiles Bk. 1, ch. 10–11). Or better, he seems to think that we must first prove that God exists via the reasoning in Ch. 2 (which he thinks is unlikely), then later move to the idea in Ch. 3 that divine existence is necessary. On this reasoning, by disposing of Ch. 2 one disposes of Ch. 3. This dismissal of the ontological argument is too easy, however. By postponing analysis of the concept of necessary existence, Aquinas postpones a consideration of the stronger Anselmian version of the argument: from the modality “necessity of existence” existence is deducible, but from the modality “contingency of existence” it is not.

Aristotle’s Unmoved Mover, with its associated “Platonic” escape from matter, is also, on Rorty’s interpretation, an escape from decision making altogether. Rorty’s implied stance, by contrast, is that the greatest conceivable being, if such existed, would be the one who makes the most important and far-reaching decisions, as is the case in Hartshorne’s theism, rather than a being who escapes from decision making altogether (Rorty 1963a, 512; Hartshorne 1936). Rorty not only favors process or neoclassical theism to the classical theism often found in the Abrahamic religions (with Aristotle’s Unmoved Mover being the main predecessor to classical theism), he also seems to 36 Rethinking the Ontological Argument favor Hartshorne’s version of neoclassical theism to Whitehead’s because the latter’s Primordial Nature of God, which contemplates the “Platonic” eternal objects, is ironically too close to Aristotle’s Unmoved Mover.

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