Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidases: Structure and Function by Immacolata Castellano, Antonello Merlino

By Immacolata Castellano, Antonello Merlino

Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidases (γ-GTs) are contributors of the N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase superfamily, enzymes that cleave the γ-glutamyl amide bond of glutathione to disencumber cysteinylglycine. The published γ-glutamyl workforce will be transferred to water (hydrolysis) or to amino acids or brief peptides (transpeptidation). γ-GT performs a key function within the gamma glutamyl cycle via regulating the mobile degrees of the antioxidant glutathione, consequently it's a serious enzyme in preserving mobile redox homeostasis.γ-GT is upregulated in the course of irritation and in different human tumors, and it's desirous about many physiological issues on the topic of oxidative pressure, similar to Parkinson’s ailment and diabetes. additionally, this enzyme is used as a marker of liver affliction and melanoma. This booklet covers present wisdom in regards to the structure-function dating of γ-GTs and offers information regarding purposes of γ-GTs in several fields starting from scientific biochemistry to biotechnology and biomedicine.​

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Hashimoto W, Suzuki H, Nohara S, Kumagai H (1992) Escherichia coli gammaglutamyltranspeptidase mutants deficient in processing to subunits. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 189(1):173–178 53. Ikeda Y, Fujii J, Taniguchi N (1996) Effects of substitutions of the conserved histidine residues in human gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. J Biochem 119(6):1166–1170 54. Keillor JW, Castonguay R, Lherbet C (2005) Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism. Methods Enzymol 401:449–467 55.

Thus, NO acts as a ‘chemosensitizing agent’, likely by modulating processes associated with prevention or inhibition of cellular drug resistance mechanisms. Reactivation of NO signaling might in some way counteract the effects produced by hypoxia in solid tumors [148]. However, the mechanisms by which NO restores sensitivity to anticancer agents are not clearly understood. This critical action might be played by vascular changes (promotion of blood perfusion and tumor oxygenation), radical scavenging, down-regulation of the GSH detoxification, inhibition of key transcription factors, as well as inhibition of drug efflux transporters and DNA repair enzymes.

Increases KM by over 1000-fold No effect on activity Reduces enzyme activity by 99 %. Abolishes activity when associated with S452A Reduces enzyme activity by 99 %. Abolishes activity when associated with S451A No effect on activity Reduces enzyme activity by 90 % studies suggesting that halophilic enzymes present higher proportion of acid residues on the surface than their non-halophilic homologs [77, 78] and with a recent comparative structural analysis of residue distribution in a database comprising 15 pairs of halophilic/non-halophilic homologs [76].

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