Glucagon III by I. Mollerup, T. Kornfelt, P. Oreskov, H. V. Tøttrup (auth.),

By I. Mollerup, T. Kornfelt, P. Oreskov, H. V. Tøttrup (auth.), Professor Pierre J. Lefèbvre M.D., Ph.D., FRCP (eds.)

Glucagon III enhances Glucagon I and II released in 1983 during this sequence as Vols. 66/I and II. those 3 volumes really symbolize a "glucagon encyclopedia" and as such don't have any rivals within the medical literature world wide. during this quantity, the newest info on glucagon molecular biology are reviewed including clinically suitable details at the function of glucagon within the pathophysiology of diabetes, where of glucagon in scientific imaging or in emergency drugs. Chapters are dedicated to newly pointed out contributors of the glucagon relatives similar to glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxyntomodulin. Glucagon III is a entire evaluation of all info released in this very important hormone due to the fact 1983 and is the reference publication at the subject.

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The 300bp of the glucagon promoter can be divided into two functionally different regions: a proximal promoter element from -1 to -150bp containing the TATA box, G1 and G4 and a distal en- 20 J. PHILIPPE hancer, localized between -150 and -300bp, which contains two enhancer-like elements and a cAMP response element CRE (Fig. 5). These elements have been defined by dele tiona I and mutational analyses as well as by binding assays. Interestingly, 5-deletions of the two most distal elements, the CRE and G3, do not result in any significant loss of basal transcription, whereas deletion of G2 leads to an 80% decrease in activity (PHILIPPE et al.

The close homologies between glucagon and GLPs SP 20 30 22 30 20 30 20 --- AM INOTP GLUCAGON 30 29 29 29 29 IP GLP 5 34 anglerfish II II chicken IP1 6 6 24 GLP-1 37 IP2 37 13 37 13 GLP-2 ~ rat ~ human 33 33 Fig. 2. Schematic representation of the glucagon precursor, preproglucagon, from anglerfish, chicken, rat and human. Anglerfish possess two nonallelic glucagon genes encoding two glucagon precursors. Numbers indicate the amino acid length of the respective peptides. SP, signal peptide; AMINOTP amino-terminal peptide; IP, intervening peptide; GLP, glucagon-like peptide 14 J.

Genes Encoding Peptide Hormones of the Glucagon Supedamily Glucagon belongs to a family of peptides with similar primary structures that includes vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), growth hormone releasing factor (GHRF), secretin and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating protein (PACAP). These pep tides are found in the gut and pancreas as well as in the central and peripheral nervous system; they may thus function as hormones and/or neurotransmitters. VIP is a 28-aa peptide, synthesized in the intestine and the central and peripheral nervous system.

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