Head Masters: Phrenology, Secular Education, and by Stephen Tomlinson

By Stephen Tomlinson

Head Masters demanding situations the belief that phrenology—the research of the conformation of the cranium because it pertains to psychological schools and character—played just a minor and just a little anecdotal position within the improvement of schooling. Stephen Tomlinson asserts as a substitute that phrenology was once a scientifically decent concept of human nature, possibly the 1st strong physiological psychology. He indicates that the 1st phrenologists have been one of the such a lot popular scientists and intellectuals in their day, and that the concept that was once eagerly embraced via best individuals of the recent England clinical community.

Following its development from eu theorists Franz-Joseph Gall, Johan Gasper Spurzheim, and George Combe to american citizens Horace Mann and Samuel Gridley Howe, Tomlinson strains the origins of phrenological concept and examines how its uncomplicated rules of human class, inheritance, and improvement supplied a origin for the revolutionary practices encouraged via middle-class reformers reminiscent of Combe and Mann. He additionally elucidates the ways that type, race, and gender stereotypes permeated nineteenth century inspiration and the way renowned perspectives of nature, brain, and society supported a mundane curriculum favoring using disciplinary practices in accordance with physiology.

This learn finally bargains a reconsideration of the information and theories that influenced schooling reformers resembling Mann and Howe, and a reassessment of Combe, who, even though rarely identified by way of modern students, emerges as essentially the most vital and influential educators of the nineteenth century.

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Extra resources for Head Masters: Phrenology, Secular Education, and Nineteenth-Century Social Thought

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32 If this were true, the Savage of Aveyron was at the very lowest point of this scale. He ate food voraciously, however dirty, appeared indifferent to temperature, and, despite a keen interest in smelling almost every object he came upon, did not sneeze when a large amount of snuff was forced up his nose. Nor had anyone seen him cry. Most significantly, however, was the "complete insensibility" of Victor's ear, even to the sound of a pistol. "33 This included several hours in a hot bath each day, until the boy showed an aversion to cold water.

Unlike the secondary schools envisioned by Condorcet, these were not meant to be an extension of primary education, but rather separate elite academies for students beyond age twelve who wished to prepare for higher education or careers in the civil service. Indeed, in contrast to the more radical plans of the Assembly, primary schooling was not even compulsory, although, as in Jefferson's scheme, funds were provided for the advancement of the most exceptional students in the lower orders. This provision did little to satisfy democratic critics who bemoaned the loss of earlier, more egalitarian schemes.

36 In sum, it had not been "apprenticed" to discriminate the subtitles of speech. "37 As time passed, however, he started attending to human voices. It was thus with some enthusiasm that Itard caught his student responding to an "0" soundthe sound in the word "Victor" for which he was named. " But Victor could not form words, even though the scar on his neck indicated, contrary to Bonnaterre's hypothesis, that his larynx had not been damaged. Itard concluded that the organ had simply atrophied with disuse.

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