By Michael J. Sanderson, Larry Hufford
Why do unrelated organisms occasionally look nearly exact in info of the anatomy, habit, body structure, and ecology? Homoplasy assembles leaders in evolutionary biology to discover problems with parallelism, convergence, and reversals. This cutting edge ebook is sure to impress dialogue of homoplasy compelling facts for specific theories of evolutionary swap Key positive factors* the 1st publication in this more and more fascinating topic* contains authoritative remedies from prime specialists expressing numerous viewpoints
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Two environmental problems are posed by these ecological shifts: (1) find and consume small prey items, and (2) avoid being eaten yourself while foraging in the more open mid-waters. 0) ~" Increase angle between eye and mouth, increase body depth N Herbivore Browser Macrophytic algae Subsurge reef I FIGURE 5 Phylogenetic diversification in ecology and morphology in the Acanthuridae. Ecological traits are optimized on the phylogenetic tree. Morphological traits are listed above each terminal taxon; morphometric trends are indicated by double bars on the phylogenetic tree.
H O W DO WE EXPLAIN THE PATTERNS? Biogeographical homoplasies indicate four different phenomena. The first of these is postspeciation dispersal. In such cases, one species occurs in more than one of the areas designated in a biogeographical analysis. This indicates that a species has expanded its range from its area of origin into one or more other areas. , Nelson and Platnick 1981). The converse of postspeciation dispersal is the situation in which two or more species representing a given clade are endemic to only one of the areas designated in a biogegraphical analysis.
6 Part I Implicationsof Homoplasy biological organization. This is intended to show how broadly the fundamental principles of phylogenetic reasoning can be applied to exciting studies of evolutionary mechanisms. "BUILT-IN" HOMOPLASY A common metaphorical perception among biologists is that the "closer to the genome" one samples characters, the closer to the true phylogeny will be the results of phylogenetic analysis on those data. Many believe that data "closer to the genome" should be closer to the actual underpinnings of evolution and should not be affected by homoplasy produced by selection processes.