Human Settlements and Energy. An Account of the ECE Seminar by C. I. Jackson

By C. I. Jackson

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Extra resources for Human Settlements and Energy. An Account of the ECE Seminar on the Impact of Energy Considerations on the Planning and Development of Human Settlements, Ottawa, Canada, 3–14 October 1977

Example text

2. 5 million square metres in 1973. . Representative costs in Europe fall within the range of $1 to $4/Gcal which is about one-half to one-eighth of the cost of such thermal energy at current (1976) local prices for imported oil. . The main use of geothermal energy has been to generate electricity. . The signi­ ficant power plants known so far are Larderello (Italy) and The Geysers (California), about 400 M W each at the end of 1973. Both construction and operating costs for the geothermal plants installed above these fields have proved to be lower than those for plants using fossil or nuclear fuel.

Despite the cautious approach taken by experts towards the commercial feasibility of solar energy systems in the short term, they are of particular significance to h u m a n * J. B. 8 in Roger C. ). Energy Conservation in the Built Environment, CIB, 1976. Energy Issues 45 settlements, since small-scale applications—to serve one or more individual b u i l d i n g s seem more promising than large-scale systems, and solar energy seems particularly easy to utilize for space or water heating. One specific approach that may have important implications for both new and existing housing was described in the Canadian ''response p a p e r " prepared for the Ottawa Seminar: .

In certain circumstances, however, electric space heating may become a much more efficient use of resources. Space heating, for example, can be a very convenient way of utilizing the off-peak output of base-load thermal power stations, through the use of simple, short-period storage systems. Battery recharging of electric vehicles would also normally be accompHshed in off-peak periods (see p . 5 2 ) . Electric heating may also be appropriate if the electricity is generated from hydro or nuclear energy resources.

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