By Lokenath Debnath, Dambaru Bhatta
The new version of Instant Notes in Molecular Biology has been revised and up to date to incorporate details on micro RNAs, RNA inhibition, useful genomics, proteomics, imaging, stem cells and bioinformatics. Written in an obtainable variety, the e-book should be a hugely great tool for learning molecular biology.
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Extra info for Instant Notes in Molecular Biology
Only the ␣-carbon and peptide bond carbon and nitrogen atoms of the polypeptide backbone are shown for clarity. (b) Section of a ␤-sheet secondary structure. Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of a section of protein tertiary structure. tertiary structure by heat or extremes of pH leads to denaturation of the protein and formation of a random coil conformation. Quaternary structure Many proteins are composed of two or more polypeptide chains (subunits). These may be identical or different. Hemoglobin has two ␣-globin and two ␤-globin chains (␣2␤2).
At neutral pH, each phosphate group has a single negative charge. This is why nucleic acids are termed acids; they are the anions of strong acids. Nucleic acids are thus highly charged polymers. DNA/RNA sequence Conventionally, the repeating monomers of DNA or RNA are represented by their single letters A, T, G, C or U. In addition, there is a convention to write the sequences with the 5Ј-end at the left. Hence a stretch of DNA sequence might be written 5Ј-ATAAGCTC-3Ј, or even just ATAAGCTC. An RNA sequence might be 5Ј-AUAGCUUGA-3Ј.
In RNA the sugar is ribose and the compounds are ribonucleosides, or just nucleosides, whereas in DNA it is 2Ј-deoxyribose, and the nucleosides are named 2Ј-deoxyribonucleosides, or just deoxynucleosides. Base + sugar = nucleoside. Nucleotides Nucleotides are nucleosides with one or more phosphate groups covalently bound to the 3Ј-, 5Ј- or, in ribonucleotides, the 2Ј-position. Base + sugar + phosphate = nucleotide. The nucleoside 5Ј-triphosphates (NTPs or dNTPs) are respectively the building blocks of polymeric RNA and DNA.