By J. C. Cluley (auth.)
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Extra info for Interfacing to Microprocessors
Interfacing to Microprocessors 32 The service routine is simpler to write than for many other microprocessors, since there is no need to program the saving and restoring of the processor register contents. As part of the initial interrupt sequence, before beginning the service routine, the processor automatically saves on the stack the contents of all registers apart from the stack pointer. At the end of the routine the single instruction RTI causes a return to the main program, and automatically restores the contents of the processor registers.
VMA. 02) and WR = (R/W. VMA. 02) These signals provide timing for the data transfer and obviate the need to distribute a 02 clock signal. When power is initially applied to the processor, a reset signal is required to start program execution. This is also sent to the PPI and resets all registers so that all three ports behave as inputs. 34 Interfacing to Microprocessors The way in which the ports operate is controlled by writing to the control register, selected by an address which has the two LS bits both set, so that AO and AI are both high.
The 1/0 pins are divided into three 8-bit ports, A, Band C, with port C being divided into an upper and a lower half. Using a 40-pin package there are 24 pins used for the ports, 8 for the data bus, 4 for control lines RD, WR, CS and RESET, so leaving only two for address lines. Thus only four device codes or addresses can be used, and as there are five registers to be accessed, some additional decoding is needed. This is done by using one address for both control and bit set/reset registers, the selection being made by bit 7 of the byte sent to them.