By Chiu, Krauss
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Brown, 1993; Johnstone, Ferrara, & Bean, 1992) . As Slugoski and Turnbull (1988 point out, although the Brown-Levinson model was formulated to predict the degree of polite usage, the parties' relative status can equally well be predicted from a knowledge of the request magnitude, the politeness level and the dyad's social distance. Holtgraves and Yang (1990) find that both American and Korean subjects judge the speaker's relative status to be inversely related to the politeness of the request form.
A request carries with it the presupposition that the addressee has a right to refuse, and must be made in a way that preserves the illusion that refusal is a possibility. By varying the extent to which a request allows for alternative courses of action, compliance can be seen as voluntary. The linguistic form of the utterance plays a role in this. ") Variations in the linguistic form of requests can be seen as a manifestation of politeness. , the claims each implicitly makes about who they are and the role they will play in the interaction (Goffman, 1959).
The extent to which negative evaluations of accented language speakers are mediated by the negative affect associated with difficulties in comprehension is unclear. , Fiske & Neuberg, 1990; see also Brewer and Brown's chapter on intergroup relations). Finally, contextual factors are an important moderator of language attitudes. The strength of the matched guise technique is that it isolates the contribution of language variation to social inferences. However, the procedure also deprives listeners of other relevant contextual cues, and when contextual cues are introduced, the effects of language variations may be greatly attenuated.