Language Policy and Language Planning: From Nationalism to by S. Wright

By S. Wright

A complete complicated textbook, overlaying not just language studying imposed by way of fiscal or political agendas but in addition language offerings entered into freely for purposes of social mobility, monetary virtue or staff identification. the 1st a part of the publication studies the improvement and function of ordinary languages within the development of nationwide groups and identities. the second one half examines the linguistic lodging of teams involved, significant lingua francas and the case of 'International English'. The 3rd part explores reactions to nationalism and globalization, with a few realization to language rights. The ebook additional bargains with methodological difficulties of operating during this interdisciplinary quarter, and gives targeted illustrations from a number of international locations and communities.

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From this time on proclamations from the centre to the provinces were in French and it became a patriotic and revolutionary duty for citizens 32 Language Policy and Language Planning to learn and use French: In a democracy each citizen must keep a watch on the government. To carry out such a role one must know one's government and above all one must understand the language it uses. (Barere 1792. Author's translation) The other languages of France were demonised and linked to antirevolutionary forces and factions: Breton is the language of federalism and superstition; German is the language of those who hate France and have abandoned it; Italian is the language of those who oppose the revolution; Basque is the language of fanaticism.

Class differentiation was always there. 3 Although Bourdieu (1982) is right to state that a standard always legitimises the class from which it stems, the absence of a standard does not reverse this. The dialects of those without power will never constitute cultural capital and the argument that a standard is more easily acquired than an in-group variety that is not codified is legitimate. Language here cannot be seen as a cause of intra group difference and disadvantage. Where the other languages/dialects present on the territory of the state nations survived the pressures of nationalism, they mostly retreated to the private domain, were not taught in schools and were not permitted in any contact with the state.

In his 1577 text, Six Books on the Commonwealth, he argues that the monarchy's absolute, perpetual and indivisible power is held directly from God and is unbounded and unrestrained. Another Frenchman, Jacques Bossuet, further elaborated the theory of the divine right of kings, supporting it with evidence from the Bible (Bossuet 1709). Much had prepared the way for populations to accept the sacred nature of the monarchy. The medieval sacralization of the king and his bloodline was increasingly expressed in royal iconography as, from the mid-sixteenth century on, monarchs commissioned statues and paintings of themselves as deities.

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