Lasers and Optical Fibers in Medicine by Abraham Katzir

By Abraham Katzir

The expanding use of fiber optics within the box of medication has created a necessity for an interdisciplinary point of view of the know-how and strategies for physicians in addition to engineers and biophysicists. This booklet provides a complete exam of lasers and optical fibers in an hierarchical, three-tier approach. every one bankruptcy is split into 3 simple sections: the basics part presents an outline of Read more...

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Some lasers emit radiation continuously (CW). Others emit radiation with fairly long pulses (milli2 2 2 2 2 2 2 > ΟQ. (3 ε c _ S O N ε 2 κ 8 8 ^• - ο ε ε in in Ι/Ι >o h 1 3 >> α. 14 Coolont out Electrode Schematic drawing of a gas laser. second) or with short pulses (microsecond). Some can be operated in several tem­ poral modes. A few of the common C 0 laser systems are described below from a practical point of view: 2 (i) CW lasers: Most of these lasers are gas flow lasers and are DC excited.

Descrip­ tions of these lasers can be found in texts mentioned in the references at the end of the chapter. There are several lasers which, although potentially useful for medical applications, have not yet been widely tested. In this section we discuss a few of these lasers. 1 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Laser This laser is similar in some respects to the C 0 laser, except that the gas used is carbon monoxide. The commercially available CO lasers are modified versions of the C 0 lasers. Yet there are some significant differences.

This "pumping" energy may be in the form of direct electrical, light, or chemical energy. With sufficient pumping one can obtain light amplification, or gain. The gain medium may be gas, solid, or liquid. As explained earlier, in a laser structure the medium that produces gain is placed between two mirrors that provide feedback. In addition to gain there are several loss mechanisms in the laser structure, such as scattering and absorption in the active medium and in the mirrors. The net gain is therefore the difference between the gain provided by the medium and the losses.

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