Liquid Extraction, First Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, by Robert E. Treybal

By Robert E. Treybal

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Extra info for Liquid Extraction, First Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc

Example text

Iodine absorbed if by 1 gm. 100 gm. of an of oil. oil of This iodine is number 50 LIQUID EQUILIBRIA 35 those of low iodine number, therefore, with furfural as an extracting solvent, iodine number can be substituted for percentage as one of the coordinate scales (40) as in Fig. 34. : and this empirical property can be used for simplification of paraffinieity, graphical representation. These will be elaborated upon when the corre- sponding extraction processes are considered. Furfural Use of iodine number to characterize vegetable-oil systems.

Simple extensions to cases where liquids A and B are only partially soluble and where solid C is distributed between the equilibrium layers are For example, in the configuration shown in Fig. 17, readily visualized. the situation is fundamentally similar to that in Fig. 16, except that the all LIQUID EXTRACTION 20 two-liquid-phase area is so large that it reaches to the B-A axis. The various areas need no additional explanation. In some instances, the solubility of the solid C is extremely small in an organic liquid B, so that the diagram appears to be considerably distorted, as in the case of sodium hydroxide-acetone-water (20), sodium hydroxide-isobutanol-water (17), and calcium chloride-methyl ethyl ketone-water (32), but the interpretation is nevertheless the same.

3 i4) - where the standard-state fugacities fA and / are those of the pure components at the temperature and pressure of the solution. Ordinarily it is also satisfactory to use the fugacity of the pure liquids at their own vapor Under conditions such that the perfect gas laws are adequate pressure. to describe the behavior of the gas phase, I A - _ *L - * iB i - - -jt. 0, the escaping tendency is lower than that for an ideal solution, and we have negative f deviations from Raoult's centration.

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