Manifest Destiny's Underworld: Filibustering in Antebellum by Robert E. May

By Robert E. May

Robert might deals an inventive new method of antebellum America's infamous "filibusters"--the adventurers who prepared or participated in deepest army assaults on countries with which the USA was once officially at peace. Condemned in another country as pirates, the filibusters have been frequently celebrated at domestic as heroes who epitomized the spirit of take place future. may perhaps explains the romantic, mercenary, ideological, and mental wants that drove hundreds of thousands of fellows to hitch filibustering expeditions; how they have been financed; and why the U.S. govt had little luck in curbing them. He additionally unearths the legacy of anti-Americanism that filibustering generated in Latin the US, the place humans appeared the attackers a lot the way in which we glance upon overseas terrorists this day.

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S. Senator Jeremiah Clemens of Maury’s own state of Alabama, for instance, was rumored to be organizing an operation to Ecuador. Supposedly Clemens had contracted to raise 2,100 men and provide 6 vessels to assist an effort by the former Ecuadorian president Juan José Flores to regain control over the country. 3           ’        Throughout the year, moreover, Americans plotted attacks against their southern neighbor. S. Army major and topographical engineer William H. Emory posted a letter from El Paso intimating that even though he despised “filibusterism,” he was conspiring with influential people across the border who favored the annexation of Chihuahua to the United States.

Calhoun of South Carolina, a former secretary of state, briefing him about the filibusters’ pending embarkation: “Now I must tell you of the progress of the Cuba affair. . ” Greenhow’s note reinforced John L. O’Sullivan’s attempt of five days earlier to flatter Calhoun into collaboration. 12 Even had Calhoun immediately thrown his influence behind López’s movement, it would have come too late. S. naval officers were blockading Round Island. Just the day before, Commander Victor M. Randolph had proclaimed to the “vagrants” on the island that they were mercenaries and lawbreakers, and warned them not only that he would prevent their boarding oceangoing steamers, but that starting the next day he would cut off their shipments of provisions from the mainland.

López pressed inland toward Cuba’s mountainous interior terrain with almost three quarters of his men, leaving the remainder under Colonel William Crittenden to safeguard his supplies until carts and oxen were acquired to bring them away from the coast. López did confiscate carts and oxen after arriving at the nearby village of Las Pozas, but on learning of Spanish forces in the area sent word to Crittenden to abandon the supplies and close up with him. It was too late. Spanish forces put both López’s and Crittenden’s detachments under attack on the 13th, and although the filibusters were able to repulse both assaults and inflict more casualties on the Spaniards than they themselves suffered, Crittenden made the mistake of chasing after his attackers with about eighty men.

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