Metaphors in the History of Psychology (Cambridge Studies in by David Leary

By David Leary

Metaphors within the heritage of Psychology describes and analyzes the ways that mental bills of mind functioning, cognizance, cognition, emotion, motivation, studying, and behaviour were shaped--and are nonetheless being shaped--by the crucial metaphors utilized by modern psychologists and their predecessors. The members to this quantity argue that psychologists and their predecessors have continually grew to become to metaphor which will articulate their descriptions, theories, and sensible interventions with reference to mental functioning. via specifying the most important metaphors within the historical past of psychology, those participants have provided a brand new "key" to knowing this severely vital region of human wisdom. This subject has turn into a topic of vital obstacle in numerous disciplines starting from linguistics and literary reviews to cognitive technological know-how, psychology, and philosophy. in the course of the identity of those metaphors, the individuals to this quantity have supplied a remarkably helpful advisor to the heritage, present orientations, and destiny customers of contemporary psychology.

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For instance, Robert Frost (193111956) found that "in late years" he wanted "to go further and 28 David E. Leary further in making metaphor the whole of thinking" (p. 37), and Walker Percy (1958) has argued that metaphor "is the true maker of language" and that the mind's "favorite project" is a "casting about for analogies and connections" (pp. 96-7). 10 I should reiterate, however, that the broad use of metaphor and its frequent equation with analogy throughout this volume do not mean that any of the volume's other contributors necessarily accept my contention that all language and thought are fundamentally metaphorical.

21 Regarding the evolutionary epistemology on which this comment draws, an epistemology developed on an explicitly Darwinian model, see D. Campbell (1960, 1974), Popper (1979), R. J. Richards (1977), and Toulmin (1972). Also see Simontin (1988) for a psychology of science based on this epistemology and Cohen (1985) for a discussion of the earlier "Darwinian" philosophies of science of Ludwig Boltzmann and Ernst Mach (pp. 534-40). For other impacts of Darwinism on diverse fields of thought, often mediated by the metaphorical extension of Darwinian concepts, see Appleman (1970), Beer (1983), G.

It is possible to think without such analogies in some direct fashion - "face-to-face" with the facts- will not bear criticism. To think is to generalise, to generalise is to compare. To think of one phenomenon or cluster of phenomena is to think in terms of its resemblances and differences with others. This is by now a hoary platitude. It follows that without parallels and analogies between one sphere and another of thought and action, whether conscious or not, the unity of our experience - our experience itself - would not be possible.

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