Microprocessor Design: A Practical Guide from Design by Grant McFarland

By Grant McFarland

This exact step by step advisor is a whole creation to trendy microprocessor layout, defined in easy nontechnical language with out advanced arithmetic. a great primer for these operating in or learning the semiconductor undefined, Microprocessor layout explains the entire key suggestions, phrases, and acronyms had to comprehend the stairs required to layout and manufacture a microprocessor.

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This has required many process adjustments to tolerate the higher fields. The concentration of dopants in the source, drain, and channel is precisely controlled to create a three-dimensional profile that minimizes subthreshold leakage and hot electron effects. Still, even the very gradual scaling of supply voltages increases delay and hurts performance. This penalty increases dramatically when the supply voltage becomes less than about three times the threshold voltage. It is possible to design integrated circuits that operate with supply voltages less than the threshold voltages of the devices.

The Evolution of the Microprocessor 17 First microprocessor, Intel 4004. ) Figure 1-6 semiconductor industry since 1971 have been made possible by steady year after year improvements in the manufacturing of transistors. Moore’s Law Since the creation of the first integrated circuit, the primary driving force for the entire semiconductor industry has been process scaling. Process scaling is shrinking the physical size of the transistors and the wires interconnecting them, allowing more devices to be placed on each chip, which allows more complex functions to be implemented.

7 Bohr, “Interconnect Scaling,” 106. 8 Bakoglu, “Circuits and Interconnections,” 197. 4 S 26 Chapter One Ideal scaling reduces all the vertical and horizontal dimensions by the same amount. This keeps the capacitance per length constant but greatly increases the resistance per length. In the end the reduction in wire capacitance is offset by the increase in wire resistance, and the wire delay remains constant. Scaling interconnects this way would mean that as transistors grew faster, processor frequency would quickly become limited by the interconnect delay.

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