Microprocessors. Principles and Applications by Michael J. Debenham (Auth.)

By Michael J. Debenham (Auth.)

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The s t a c k i s c a l l e d a p u s h - d o w n s t a c k from t h e w a y d a t a is e n t e r e d and r e t r i e v e d , i . e . , last in-first out. Most microp r o c e s s o r s put subroutine return a d d r e s s e s into a p u s h - d o w n s t a c k in a r e a d - w r i t e memory. Return a d d r e s s e s a r e not s a v e d within t h e program s t o r a g e a r e a a s in many minicomputers b e c a u s e most p r o g r a m s for m i c r o p r o c e s s o r s a r e s t o r e d in r e a d - o n l y memory.

The r e a s o n for t h e two p a s s e s is t h a t , on t h e first p a s s , t h e c o m p u t e r will frequently e n c o u n t e r r e f e r e n c e s t o s t o r e l o c a t i o n s in s y m b o l i c form, t o which it will be u n a b l e to a s c r i b e an e x a c t address a t the t i m e . H o w e v e r , t h e first p a s s being c o m p l e t e d , a l l a d d r e s s information will then be a v a i l a b l e t o t h e a s s e m b l e r , and on t h e s e c o n d p a s s t h e c o m p l e t e program may be a s s e m b l e d with a l l a d d r e s s e s i n s e r t e d .

It d o e s not n e c e s s a r i l y h a v e t o h a v e v e r y s o p h i s t i c a t e d t i m e - s a v i n g f a c i l i t i e s which only a n e x p e r t i s likely t o u s e . Assemblers T r a n s l a t i o n of a program written in mnemonic a s s e m b l y - l a n g u a g e into binary (or e q u i v a l e n t ) m a c h i n e c o d e by hand is a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d though t e d i o u s p r o c e s s , and is p r a c t i c a b l e o n l y for short p r o g r a m s . It s i m p l y i n v o l v e s keeping t r a c k o f t h e l o c a t i o n s o f s u c c e s s i v e program s t a t e m e n t s , and c o n v e r t i n g e a c h i n s t r u c t i o n into m a c h i n e c o d e by referring t o t h e t a b u l a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n s e t o f t h e m i c r o p r o c e s s o r .

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