NBS Time and Frequency Dissemination Services by Sandra L. Howe

By Sandra L. Howe

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If on the other hand it is quenching produced by the cold wall that limits the combustion, it may be that the addition of more fuel simply displaces more fuel away from the effects of the wall. At this stage the reasons for the lack of combustion when hydrogen is injected from a step in the wall are inconclusive. B. Wall-Injection Film-Cooling Results Even though not all of the fuel would burn when a wall injector was used, to assume this type of injection system is inefficient may be incorrect because when the overall performance of the engine is assessed, the advantages provided by the layer of fuel next to the wall, which include reduced heating and possibly skin-friction loads on the combustor, may well outweigh the inefficiency associated with the wasted fuel.

However, downstream, the pressure and temperature are high enough so that combustion can occur. At approximately 600 mm downstream of the compression corner, the pressure started to rise on the ramp above that observed when fuel was injected into nitrogen, and furthermore, with injection into air, at approximately 800 mm combustion is essentially complete. The corresponding elapse time was consistent with the time predicted using an approximation given by Huber et al (1979) who proposed that the time for 95% of the energy to be released in a hydrogen-air reaction at constant pressure can be satisfactorily determined from the sum of the hydrogen-air ignition time ^ and the reaction time tr where p p i .

In the absence of combustion, hydrogen is a very effective coolant. The heat transfer rate was effectively reduced to zero for a downstream length of approximately two duct heights, and a further distance of six duct heights was required before the heat-transfer rate reached the unfueled value. Unfortunately, at this fuel mass flow rate, the fuel did not burn, so that the result may be considerably different if combustion had occurred. These results will also be different in a engine in flight because the temperature of the wall will be much higher than the cold wall used here.

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