By A. D. W. McKie, R. C. Addison Jr., T.-L. T. Liao, H.-S. Ryang (auth.), Robert E. Green Jr., Krzysztof J. Kozaczek, Clayton O. Ruud (eds.)
Traditionally nearly all of fabrics characterization innovations were damaging, e. g. , chemical compositional research, metallographic choice of microstructure, tensile attempt dimension of mechanical homes, and so on. additionally, commonly, nondestructive concepts were used nearly completely for the detection of macroscopic defects, in general cracks, in buildings and units that have already been developed and feature already been in provider for a longer time period. Following those traditional nondestructive assessments, it's been universal perform to exploit a little bit arbitrary accept-reject standards to determine even if the constitution or gadget could be faraway from carrier. the current adverse prestige of a giant phase of undefined, coupled with the need to maintain constructions in carrier well beyond their unique layout existence, dramatically exhibit that our conventional methods has to be vastly converted if we're with the intention to meet destiny wishes. The position of nondestructive characterization of fabrics is altering and should proceed to alter dramatically. It has turn into more and more glaring that it really is either functional and value potent to extend the function of nondestructive evaluate to incorporate all features of fabrics' creation and alertness and to introduce it a lot prior within the production cycle. in truth, the restoration of a big component to from critical financial difficulties relies, partially, at the profitable implementation of this extended role.
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W. S. ). 16. P. Monchalin, Optical detection of ultrasound, IEEE Trans. on Ultrasonics. Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control 33:485 (1986). 17. S. P. S. Verina, Ultrasonic attenuation in carbon steel and stainless steel at elevated tempemtures, I. Appl. Phys. 39:2238 (1968). 18. P. c. A. H. Carnevale, Ultrasonic attenuation and velocity in hot specimens by the momentary contact method with pressure coupling, and some results on steel to 1200'C, I. Acoust. Soc. Am. 52:850 (1972). 19. M. J. A. B.
11 for AI-implanted Chromel. For unimplanted Chromel, nearly constant dispersion was observed, and the measured V1saw becomes 2850 m/s. 5 X 1017 dpi/cm2, no distinct dispersion was measured. 0 x 10 17, the dispersion of concave type was observed: V1saw monotonically decreases with frequency. When f = 120 MHz, V1saw becomes 2700 mis, which is smaller than the bulk velocity by 150 m/s. This significant dispersion tells that 1) Implanted aluminum is not only coated on the substrate but alloyed with constituent elements of substrate material only on the surface upto 300 nm, and 2) Synthesized surface alloy indicates softened stiffness than the bulk Chromel.
We are developing a system for measurement of attenuation in ultrasonic waves propagating through hot steel samples. Existing theories allow us to infer grain size for attenuation measurement. Our system consists of a high temperature transducer acoustically coupled to a high strength, low loss buffer rod. The rod is to be pressed against a hot steel specimen to achieve sufficiently good contact to transmit ultrasound into the specimen. To avoid plastic deformation of the specimen, we implement computer control of the load applied to the buffer rod.