By Miruna Canagatnam
A revision e-book within the One cease document revision sequence which covers the foremost evidence for the intestine and renal body structure module within the type of brief resolution Questions, (clinical circumstances) a number of selection Questions and prolonged Matching Questions. Illustrated with basic, simply reproduced line diagrams, this e-book will offer all of the important details for examination good fortune.
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T F F T F 15. F T F T F 16. F T T T F ONE STOP DOC 48 17. The following are derivatives of the midgut a. b. c. d. e. Oesophagus Rectum Jejunum Descending colon Appendix 18. Regarding the development of the duodenum a. b. c. d. e. It rotates with the stomach to the right It lies externally to the peritoneum It becomes partially occluded in the fifth and sixth weeks’ gestation It has three different blood supplies It is normally recanalized at birth Lower gastrointestinal tract 49 EXPLANATION: DEVELOPMENT OF THE MIDGUT (i) Derivatives of the midgut include: the small intestine (including much of the duodenum distal to the duodenal papilla), the caecum and appendix, the ascending colon, and most of the transverse colon (except the distal third).
They occur when intraabdominal pressure is higher than intrathoracic pressure; for example, when stooping, straining, coughing or during pregnancy (28a). They may also occur if the clamping action of the right crus of the diaphragm on the lower oesophagus is weak. Most people have no symptoms. However some experience reflux of food and acid, which can lead to chronic irritation and ulceration. Other symptoms are water brash (sudden salivation) and dysphagia. Referred pain to the shoulder may occur because the phrenic nerve innervates the parietal peritoneum and pleura as well as the pericardium next to the diaphragm.
E. Helicobacter pylori infection Heavy consumption of alcohol Trauma Aspirin ingestion Vegetarianism NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug Upper gastrointestinal tract 29 EXPLANATION: DISORDERS OF THE OESOPHAGUS AND STOMACH Acid reflux oesophagitis may cause any of the following: • Peptic ulceration • Barrett’s oesophagus • Lower oesophageal stricture. In Barrett’s oesophagus squamous epithelium of the lower oesophagus is replaced by glandular epithelium composed of tall columnar cells (metaplasia).